Marine coatings & corrosion control

Manufacturers of marine coatings and other corrosion-fighting systems continue to improve their products and services, with much emphasis on reducing costs, both of the products and their application, and by extending drydocking times.

The fuel-saving, self-polishing copolymer antifoulants continue to gain in market share. In 1984 they passed conventional antifoulants, with 53 percent of the total gallonage sold worldwide.

The editors of MR/EN asked the suppliers of marine coatings and other corrosion-control products and services to tell us about their latest and most important products and capabilities. The review that follows is based upon the replies that we had received as we went to press.

FOR MORE INFORMATION If you wish to receive additional information on any of the products and services described in this article, circle the appropriate reader service number(s) on one of the postage- paid cards near the back of this issue.

AMERICAN ABRASIVE American Abrasive Metals of Irvington, N.J., manufactures Epoxo, a safety coating that provides surefooted, non-slip, long-lasting traction. Originally developed for use by the U.S. Navy, Epoxo has been used on the flight decks of all aircraft carriers since 1962. It provides vital, non-skid safety for helicopter landing pads on offshore rigs. The safety coating is also suitable for use on ramps, passageways, engine rooms, equipment storage rooms, and shop areas—wherever slippery surfaces exist.

Epoxo's tough epoxy binder resists gouging, impact, and chipping. It locks in the coating's near diamond- hard abrasive granules, preventing them from being loosened or kicked out. Epoxo is said to maintain its highy effective non-slip properties five times longer than sand and paint.

It is unaffected by seawater, oil, gasoline, grease, and chemicals, and can be rolled, troweled, or sprayed on. A two-man team can roll up to 1,000 square feet per hour. Epoxo is available in a variety of colors and in 1- and 5-gallon containers.

AMERON Ameron Inc. of Monterey Park, Calif., recently announced a new dimension in abrasion protection named Amerthane. The Amerthane barrier on steel, aluminum, or concrete provides outstanding protection against sliding and impact abrasion. The new product's elastomeric polyurethanes possess the mechanical properties that deliver long-term abrasion protection over a wide range of temperatures and service conditions. Flexible to temperatures as low as —80 F, it provides the surface to resist most severe solids—handling environments such as mineral ores, coal, grain, salt, sulfur, or plastic pellets. Other marine uses where Amerthane is likely to offer alternative solutions are decks and hull exteriors subject to severe abrasion and impact. Areas around the stern including the propeller where cavitation, pitting, and erosion are prevalent is another application where Amerthane is being considered as a cost-effective alternative.

Ameron's success in high-technology coatings for all types of uses aboard ship includes silicate technology to achieve anticorrosive and antifouling properties in one product. A durable, controlled-release type antifouling, Amercoat 602 is a coating that can provide protection for up to 48 months. Being both an anticorrosive and antifouling coating, repair of the surface requires minimum material and labor, offering a significant cost-effective approach to underwater hull maintenance. Ameron's portfolio of antifoulings also includes the latest state-of-theart ablative self-polishing product, Amercoat 698HS, which has solids by volume of 55 percent and offers protection under both water and dynamic conditions and is compatible with most anticorrosive systems. ARNESSEN The Arnessen Corporation's Corrosion Dynamics Division of Roselle, N.J., provides a complete line of heavy-duty descaling and highpressure air/water cleaning devices for removal of rust, scale, and old paint from ships, barges, offshore rigs, storage tanks, and other structures. Among the quality tools and equipment offered by Arnessen are chipping hammers, deck scaling machines, needle scalers, and water/air cleaning machines.

The company's SSS high-pressure water cleaning system solves the problem of cleaning the holds of both large and small bulk carriers and similar vessels, as well as the insides of land-based steel storage tanks and other interiors. The system is based on the use of compressed air to increase the speed and throw of a water jet. It is simply connected to a ship's water-on-deck line and the service air line. A new nozzle design feeds the compressed air so as not to split and spread the water column.

The Model SSS-100 Mini-Gun is small, light, and specially designed for deck, superstructure, and hold cleaning in ships and other enclosures where headroom does not exceed 35 feet. The Model SSS-200 Combi-Gun is primarily intended for the hose cleaning of high holds, tall superstructures, ships' sides, etc., but is equally effective for other cleaning. Its powerful jet and high washing efficiency make prior sweeping unnecessary. Hot water can be used to speed removal of greasy deposits and stubborn dirt. AURAND An improved, low-cost method for removing corrosion, paint, scale, rust, and other accumulated coatings from steel or any other hard surface in a marine environment is offered by Aurand Centrifi-Clean Tools, of Cincinnati, Ohio.

The exclusive Centrifi-Clean system combines the Aurand technique, proven over more than 35 years, with a new modern design. The cleaning and chipping power is delivered by a patented bundle of multi-toothed circular cutting wheels, loose-pinioned around a rotating head. The head revolves at high speed, using centrifugal force to throw the cutters' specially designed teeth against the surface to be cleaned.

The cutters are of high grade tool steel, specially heat treated and hardened. They feature a new design with increased cutting surface that means greater capacity and longer wear. In addition, Aurand cutter bundles are easily replaced and are interchangeable between different Aurand cleaning tools. The thoroughness of the Centrifi-Clean method also usually means less frequent cleaning.

All Aurand tools feature an adjustable depth shoe set by the operator to limit the impact of the cutters. This feature protects the surface being cleaned and insures uniform cleaning action, preventing excessive cutter wear. The tools are lightweight, easy to handle, and have durable cast aluminum housings. The Aurand Centrifi-Clean equipment is available in both electric and pneumatic models. Electric tools are available in 115 and 230- volt models, with ^ or I^-hp AC or DC universal motors, and 15 feet of three-conductor cable.

The pneumatic tools feature rotary type air motors, in % or 2% hp sizes, free from toggles, pistons, or reciprocating parts to eliminate vibration. Units operate on 70 to 100 pounds air pressure.

Models are available with cleaning areas 5-inches, 8-inches, or 13- inches wide.

BUTTERWORTH Butterworth, Inc. of Houston, an Exxon affiliate, has been a leader in high-pressure, water-jetting technology for more than 20 years. With equipment offering pressures from 5,000 to 20,000 psi and a variety of flow rates, the applications are unlimited. The company recently demonstrated the performance of its 20,000-psi Liqua-Blaster system on a barge that was heavily encrusted with ru=+ and barnacles. The effect of the zu,u00-bh^ vvater blasting on the layered corrosion could be seen clearly, with one sweep of the gun removing both barnacles and scale deposits that could not be removed at all with lower pressure water jets or sandblasting.

Independent field tests showed that 20,000 psi not only got to "white" metal but also removed the contaminants that were below the surface. This included corrosion pockets formed when metal folds over the surface, pits that cannot be reached by the surface attack of abrasives and chemical salts.

Abrasive blasting reworked the surface but did not remove these contaminants, and the result is almost always paint failure. The average production rate was 60 square feet per hour, which is comparable to the rate achieved with dry abrasive cleaning.

Butterworth is offering free copies of an in-depth study by Coastal Science & Associates entitled "Evaluation of 20,000 psi Waterjetting for Surface Preparation of Steel Prior to Coating or Recoating." BYWATER COATINGS Bywater Coatings Company of Belle Chasse, La., is a member of the Brink/Molyn Group of the Netherlands and its subsidiary, MCS Marine Coatings and Services. This came about through the acquisition of Bywater by Brink/Molyn Beheer N.V.

The Byco-MCS marine line will continue as before with the addition of MCS products, along with the availability of the combination on a worldwide basis.

Two new products of interest to the marine user are 316 epoxy mastic and 950 urethane/aluminum primer. Both products exhibited excellent adhesion to marginally cleaned steel surfaces (ST-3) along with a low moisture vapor transmission rate.

Byco—MCS 316 epoxy mastic is manufactured in two colors, red oxide and aluminum. It can be applied in a single coat to 16 mils dry, and does not need a primer. Its high solids (84 percent) make it economical to apply. The 316 can be used in both ballast and cargo tanks.

Byco-MCS 950 is a single-package urethane/aluminum primer. Topcoats of epoxies and urethanes make it a superior barrier coat system. Byco-MCS Moluspeed 593 is the latest addition to the company's antifouling line. It was developed with the latest technology in copolymers and toxicants. The 950 is based upon the combination of slight paint-film solubility and leaching. CARBOLINE Carboline Company of St. Louis has a long and enviable record of service to the marine industry. Its protective coating systems have been used on hundreds of vessels to halt the destructive forces of corrosion. In addition, the company's tank linings are recognized industry- wide as having superior capabilities. Carbo Zinc 11 and Carbo Weld 11 are two of Carboline's most important products for the marine industry. Carbo Zinc 11 was the first selfcuring, alkyl silicate inorganic zinc coating ever developed. Following its introduction in the late 1950s, it became the most widely used zinc primer in the world due to its many advantages. Over the years the marine industry has become aware that the use of a Carbo Zinc protective coating system, applied over a properly prepared surface, far outperforms any other type of coating system. Since then, Carboline has expanded its inorganic zinc line to meet changing requirements. In this logical growth, the Carbo Zinc series added: Carbo Weld 11, a fully weldable preconstruction primer; Carbo Zinc 12, a more economical version of the original Carbo Zinc 11; Carbo Zinc 11 FD, a fast-drying primer for fabricating shop use; and a series of single-package products.

Carbo Weld 11 dries to the touch allowing steel to be handled in 3-5 minutes. It is ideally suited for automatic welding, and weld spatter will not adhere to nor damage the coating. CHESTERTON The Industrial & Marine Products Division of A.W. Chesterton Company of Stoneham, Mass., has developed, over a seven-year period, the antifouling coating OMP, which effectively retards growth of marine organisms and algae on ship hulls. Three different coatings have been formulated: #210 OMP, which has the slowest extraction rate. It is designed for strong currents and/or when a vessel is in continuous ser- vice. A thickness of 150 microns should be applied.

#220 OMP is designed for use in moderate currents and for vessels at sea half the time. A thickness of 245 microns is recommended. #230 OMP has the fastest extracton rate, and should be used where there is little or no current, and on vessels that are anchored most of the time. A thickness of 295 microns should be applied.

OMP coatings can be applied by brush, roller, or spray. Its effectiveness is traced to a controlled release of an organometallic antifoulant that is part of the product's binder system, and, unlike conventional coatings, is not mixed into the product. C H U G O K U M A R I NE Chugoku Marine Paints, Ltd. of Japan recently introduced a new family of self-polishing, antifouling hull coatings. These new products are based on the formulation technology of the company's AF-SEAFLO Z-100 paint that was developed five years ago and is now in service on more than 500 ships worldwide. In AF-SEAFLO Z-100 HS, volume of solids has been increased substantially and dry film thickness up to 50 percent, showing the same antifouling performance and selfpolishing action as the original formulation. Up to 150 microns per coat can be applied, and coverage is decreased by 10 percent. A two-coat system is said to offer up to 36 months protection.

AF-SEAFLO Z-100 LE and AFSEAFLO Z-100 LE HS have a low eroding/polishing rate that insures good antifouling activity for a longer period. They can be applied without extensive hull blasting, in some cases over existing conventional paints.

C L E M CO Clemco Industries of Burlingame, Calif., recently announced an addition to its abrasive blast equipment line, a Wetblast Injector System that eliminates dusty blasting environments without detracting from abrasive cleaning speed.

A water-jetting design combined with precise metering improves abrasive velocity rather than causing abrasive flow interference. The result is a hard-hitting, high-velocity blast force that will clean to white metal quickly.

A versatile function of the system is its ability to remove aged top layers of paint while retaining solid, tightly adhered base coats. This cost-effective feature eliminates the necessity to apply new primer when existing primer is intact.

Another new addition to the Clemco line, after two years of research and development and field testing, is the PVR-400 pinch valve remote control for abrasive blast cleaning. With this control, one operator can stop blasting without depressurizing the blast machine; other operators can continue to work off the same machine without interruption.

The PVR-400 features a normally closed grit valve and an air valve. Air pressure opens both to blast and a powerful spring closes them instantly when pressure is removed.

Pilot valves or air pressure are unnecessary to close the valves. The danger of accidental blasting is said to be nonexistent.

The remote control systems are available in either pneumatic or electrical versions.

DAMPNEY Dampney Company, Inc. of Everett, Mass., has been supplying its Apexior® line of protective coatings to the maritime industry for more than 70 years. Two grades of the Apexior coating offer long-lasting corrosion protection for metal exposed to fresh or salt water over a wide range of temperatures.

Apexior Number 1® is a heatresistant coating for metal surfaces immersed in boiling water at temperatures to 700 F. Typical applications include the water-side surfaces of such marine equipment as steam generator toilers and drums, economizers, water heaters, evaporators, and steam turbine rotors. It is applied by brush and dries tack-free in 16 hours.

Apexior Number 3® offers lowcost basic corrosion protection for difficult-to-prepare metal surfaces that are frequently wet or immersed in water at temperatures up to 140 F. It is recommended for service conditions where the use of expensive high-performance coatings cannot be justified.

Typical applications include condensers, air receiver tanks, brine tanks, rudders and rudder posts, propeller blades and cones, and chain lockers. Apexior Number 3 can be applied by spraying or brushing; drying time between coats is 12 hours.

DEVOE MARINE In answer to the marine and off- shore industry's need to provide long-term protection to substrates economically without sandblasting, Devoe Marine Coatings Company of Louisville, Ky., a division of Grow Group, Inc., developed Bar-Rust 235. Specifically designed for application over tight rust, this coating requires a surface preparation of Swedish Standard D St 2 for nonimmersion service and D St 3 for immersion service. Traditional epoxies cease cure at 40 F. Devoe Marine has broken through this barrier with Bar-Rust, a new-technology epoxy that can be applied and will cure at temperatures below freezing.

As Bar-Rust is an epoxy, the cured paint film results in a permanent, hard lining with excellent seawater resistance; the safety problems associated with "soft" coatings are eliminated. Bar-Rust 235 can be used in nearly every marine and offshore application where abrasive blasting is impractical or too costly, such as ballast tanks, voids, and vessel exterior areas both above and below the waterline.

In the area of ablative coatings, Devoe developed the ABC-AF system of ablative anti-fouling coatings. With its unique ablative mechanisms, ABC is compatible with a variety of quality anti-corrosive systems. The high ablative action creates a smoothing effect, decreasing the vessel's drag resistance and thereby reducing fuel costs.

Full fouling protection is provided by ABC in both the dynamic and static conditions. When utilized in conjunction with Devoe's AC system, a 12-year bottom paint system results, requiring only anti-fouling renewal at drydocking after highpressure water washing of the intact underwater areas. Devoe's anti-corrosive system does not include tarbased coatings, thereby eliminating the health hazards and performance problems associated with coal tar epoxies and their derivatives. In response to increasing environmental concerns regarding the possible toxic effects of organo tin compounds, Devoe developed its ABCAF organo tin free ablative coating with the same performance characteristics as the existing ABC. Besides addressing the environmental concerns, savings may accrue to the owner in the form of reduced application costs by eliminating the costs that may be associated with the application/removal of organo tin anti-foulings.

Grow Group's Devoe Prufcoat industrial maintenance division in Baton Rouge, La., continues to penetrate the tank lining market, reporting increased sales of its Chemline 548 and Chemfast 547 epoxy coatings. Chemline 548, the division's newest product, is said to offer better chemical resistance than is typically available in epoxies. The Chemfast 547 system is a coating that adheres to rusty steel surfaces, and has application in a broad number of markets.

DREW AMEROID Drew Ameroid Marine in Booton, N.J., is a major supplier of products and services to the maritime industry worldwide. Products include maintenance chemicals, water and fuel treatment programs, packings, jointings, mechanical seals, and a complete line of welding and refrigerant gasses and products.

Drew's BTP-101 ballast tank preservative contains a rust inhibitor, wetting agents, and oils formulated specifically for protecting ballast tanks and other marine equipment from the corrosive effect of the marine salt water environment. BTP- 101 forms a non-drying, self-healing film that electrochemically binds itself to tank surfaces. It penetrates through existing rust on the tank surfaces and displaces water, thus eliminating costly surface preparation by sandblasting and the need for humidity control when applying. BTP-101 ballast tank preservative is specifically designed to lowcost application by the flotation method of coating ballast tanks. Where this method is not possible, the preservative may be sprayed or brushed on the surface to be treated.

DUPONT DuPont of Wilmington, Del., markets Starblast® abrasive, a blend of coarse and fine grains of staurolite that permits virtually dust-free blasting. Airborne dust and respirable free silica levels are some 25 to 30 times below applicable OSHA air contamination standards.

Blasting areas and adjacent work sites will be well below OSHA maximum respiratory exposure limits, with unobscured visibility. Operators can see their work clearly, and can therefore work faster with fewer interruptions.

Compared with silica sand, Starblast will greatly lessen the need for special ventilation and worker protection, and will reduce concerns about the proximity of other workers to the blasting area.

Because of its uniformly sized, dense rounded grains, Starblast cleans faster—two-thirds the time needed when blasting with coal slag or silica sand—so labor costs are lowered. It also handles the same amount of blasting with less abrasive, reducing both cleanup and handling costs.

D U P O N T MPS Drawing on its long experience in protecting industrial facilities from the ravages of corrosion in harsh environments, Du Pont has launched an armada of services to combat the problem at offshore locations. In addition to providing continuously monitored painting services, featuring proven offshore painters and the most technologically advanced coating systems—such as those topped with Du Pont "Imron" polyurethane enamel with special aliphatic urethanes—to fight marine conditions, the company has integrated its Maintenance Painting Services (MPS) with cathodic protection. Offered to Offshore Maintenance Painting Service (OMPS) clients, Du Pont's cathodic protection services are designed for total structure corrosion protection. The service includes a survey and analysis of existing protection systems, development of a planned retrofitting program to ensure optimum continuous protection, design and engineering of all anodes for retrofitting, total anode installation services and continuous monitoring and inspection.

The service is the result of years of MPS service based on Du Pont's own internal protection program for its multibillion-dollar worldwide facilities. Through acquisitions, Du Pont has well over 15 years experience in cathodic protection, especially in installation and retrofitting. Offshore operators can find cost-effective total corrosion protection through the integration of Du Pont's know how.

To meet cool moist conditions, such as those in the North Sea, Du Pont is using a "cold cure" technology in addition to "Imron" urethane. Chloride rubbers have been used in such applications because of their faster drying times, but they do not have the durability of aliphatic urethanes. As with its OMPS program, Du Pont specialists combine tight management controls with flexible scheduling to cover contingencies such as weather and platform operating emergencies and make sure work is done on schedule and within budget.

ENGELHARD Engelhard Corporation's Capac™ impressed-current cathodic protection systems have proven effective in the prevention of corrosion and pitting in well over 2,000 oceangoing vessels of all sizes and types— tankers, containerships, workboats, mobile offshore drilling rigs, fishing trawlers, tugboats, and many types of naval vessels.

Manufactured by Engelhard's Systems Department, the automatically controlled Capac systems have operated successfully for 20 years and more, the life of most marine vessels. Thousands of dollars can be saved by avoiding the need for replacing sacrificial anodes at each drydocking and by extending the time between each drydocking.

Designed to operate unattended in the automatic mode, Capac systems constantly adjust the impressed current emitted by the platinum- clad niobium anodes to account for changes in hull speed, water temperature, salinity, and loss of the protective coating. Hull conditions can be estimated by monitoring current output—a major increase in current demand at sea probably means that serious deterioration of paint on the hull has occurred, and allows corrective action to be planned in an economical way.

Capac systems are simple to operate. No special training is required for the routine maintenance that leads to years of trouble-free corrosion control.

Engelhard Corporation, headquartered in Edison, N.J., is an international leader in the technological development and manufacturing of high-performance specialty chemicals and catalysts, industrial minerals, and precious metals products.

ESGARD Esgard, Inc. of Lafayette, La., has been active in the corrosion-prevention field for 16 years. Ongoing research and development has led to the introduction products in such diverse groups as ballast coatings, inventory protection coatings, selfpriming paints, and heavy-duty wire rope and gear lubricants.

Of particular interest to the shipowner/ operator is the choice of products available for protection of ballast tanks, voids, cofferdams, hatch covers, and chain lockers. Time-proven Interfilm Type I is a modified petroleum oil containing active corrosion inhibitors. Type I may be applied after minimal surface preparation by either spraying or flotation, and 6 mils will cover 266 square feet per gallon.

Bio-Float, with a vegetable oil base, is offered for customers who want the effectiveness, ease of application, and economy of a "floatcoat" type product but with a lesser environmental hazard. Application is by spraying or floating over minimally prepared surfaces. Coverage is 266 square feet per gallon at 6-mil thickness. The need for a non-solvent-based coating that dried was met when Esgard introduced Bio-Gel. Applied during new construction or maintenance, this vegetable coating "skins through" to form a tough, resilent film. Waterblasting or hand scraping to firm metal is sufficient for airless spray application. Coverage is 80 square feet per gallon at 20 mils. For years, Esgard's Interfilm Type II has provided protection for the marine industry. Utilized in either new construction or maintenance, Type II is applied over firm metal and cures through solvent evaporation to a strong, flexible coating. A 12-mil wet application will cover 133 square feet per gallon. EUREKA CHEMICAL Eureka Chemical Company of South San Francisco has been a leader in supplying quality soft coatings for the marine and offshore industries. Fluid Film™, Gel BW, for years has been used in ballast tanks to provide long-term protection at the lowest practical cost per year. Fluid Film Liquid AR, a new product, can be used where spray application of Gel BW is not practical. This new product can be hosed onto metal surfaces in ballast tanks or void areas with an absolute minimum of surface preparation, both for corrosion control and to soften heavy scale prior to descaling operations.

Following company policy of developing corrosion control for an expanding number of areas aboard ship, other new Eureka products continue to supplement ballast tank protection.

Fluid Film WRN-EP may be applied to standing or running rigging for both corrosion protection and lubrication. EP properties enhance its lubricating quality. For users of pressurized wire rope lubrication equipment such as Dyna-Lube, Fluid Film WRL penetrates to the core of the wire rope without dripping as the rope emerges from the applicator.

Fluid Film aerosols, which contain no solvent and do not dry out, are convenient for small applications where penetration and lubrication are desired.

Eureka's Perma Film™ family of epoxies supplement the Fluid Film coatings. Perma Film WT-100 has been in use in potable water tanks for almost 20 years. Perma Film BT-200, for ballast tanks, does not require sandblasting but may be used over a surface conforming to SSPC-SP3. Perma Film PT-100 is the latest addition to the family, and is formulated for cargo tanks, particularly in tankers and bulk carriers. GUDDEN Glidden Marine Coatings of Harahan, La., has some 20 years of experience with a steel hull bottom system combining a thin-film barrier coat with an ablative, self-cleaning vinyl antifoulant. Normal performance of this system when properly applied is 4—6 years before spot blasting and coating repairs are required. Shipyards have complained that 6- and 8-year-old Glidden bottoms were difficult to blast to white metal as the old coating was still adhering tightly.

The Glidden bottom system has proven especially effective on vessels working overseas. An owner can confidently schedule two-, four-, and even six-year drydockings without bottom paint repairs being necessary except for major collision or catastrophic grounding damage. Of course, no matter where a vessel works there is significant savings in knowing that no blasting or painting needs to be done on the bottom until its sixth or eighth year of service. Glidden's vinyl antifoulant allows little or no tightly adhering growth, even in badly polluted waters, and the system is resistant to delamination and to abrasion from repeated groundings on shallow bottoms. When repairs are required, turnabout is very quick. Under normal conditions, total drying time for a four-coat system is eight hours. The vessel may then be launched immediately or left dry indefinitely with no reduction of antifouling protection. HEMPEL'S A major increase in customer specification choice in self-polishing antifoulings was announced recently by Hempel's Marine Paints Limited, the worldwide manufacturer and supplier of marine coatings. The company has added three new modules to its tailor-making range of self-polishing antifoulings— Hempel's Nautic Modules— and at the same time applied to the whole range the concept of variable film thicknesses, first introduced last year in its Classic line of nonpolishing antifoulings.

With the introduction of Nautic- Hi modules, the specification choice the shipowner has open to him rises from 12 to as many as 282. It also enables the customer to reduce the number of coats required, thereby cutting the quantity needed and shipyard application costs.

The three new modules are Hempel's Nautic-Hi 7690, 7695, and 7697, and they can be specified in variable film thicknesses.

The increase in specification choice made possible by the introduction of the three new modules and the application of the concept of variable film thicknesses is important because Hempel's tailormaking Nautic Modules were developed specifically to enable customers to choose the optimum self-polishing coating to suit their individual ships.

The increased solid volume ratio now offered, plus the variable film thicknesses concept, allow even greater flexibility in the total dry film thicknesses to be specified, thereby enhancing the tailor-making ability of the modules.

HENKEL Henkel Corporation of Minneapolis provides Versamid® 280B75 polyamide resin and Genamid® 2000 amidoamine resin, the curing agents used by formulators to produce unique epoxy coating that meets the U.S. Navy's P-24441 (SHIPS) Specification and offers good adhesion to poorly prepared surfaces, low-temperature cure, and corrosion resistance without rust-inhibitive pigments. Laboratory tests conducted by Henkel reveal that coatings based on these resins "creep" into small cracks to displace water and foreign materials. There is also chemical absorption on metal surfaces to prevent corrosion, and no zinc pigments to inhibit welding.

INTERNATIONAL PAINT Marketed under the "K" Series, International Paint Company, Inc. of Union, N.J., is introducing three new anti-corrosive products to the U.S. market. These products do not contain coal tar epoxy, and will be available in standard cure, a lowtemperature cure, and surface-tolerant version. These products are said to offer extremely attractive operational flexibility to both owners and shipyards.

The KT Series is a surface-tolerant anti-corrosive that can be applied over marginally prepared surfaces, complex structures, or where operational/safety regulations restrict blasting. KT Series cures down to 32 F, will not bleed through when overcoated, and is currently available in four colors.

In addition to curing down to 20 F, the KL Series cures faster at all temperatures, allowing for shorter overcoat intervals and faster drydockings. This product is also furnished in four colors, and exhibits no bleed when overcoated.

The KH Series is the standard cure product that is available in five colors and has the lowest price in the new K line. This product complements the other two in offering a complete line of anti-corrosives for all standard operational conditions. International Paint's Intersmooth Hisol and Interswift copolymer antifoulings continue to displace conventional products, confirming worldwide customer acceptance of copolymer's superior performance and economic benefits. Of all antifoulants sold in 1984, 53 percent were copolymers, compared with only eight percent in 1979.

These copolymer antifoulants are now being specified for drydocking intervals of four to five years, and are showing every indication of superb long-term fouling protection.

JAEGLE Jaegle Paint Company, headquartered in Havertown, Pa., began manufacturing heavy-duty marine coatings in 1935, and quickly grew to produce its products at three separate locations for customers worldwide. A complete line of marine coatings is available for both surface ships and underwater craft. Jaegle's capability in the latter category is documented by its participation in the U.S. Navy's submarine building program. Coatings are offered for surface vessel maintenance as well as for new construction.

Jaegle is well known in the marine industry for 24-hour inspection services as well as systems analysis and recommendation. The company's coatings experts travel worldwide to assist in writing specifications and in performing hull and tank surveys. Providing technical expertise is part of an ongoing program by Jaegle to provide shipowners with the most effective coating systems for their vessels, and insuring that the systems are applied properly.

JOTUN Jotun Marine Coatings, Inc. of Baltimore, a subsidiary of Jotun of Norway, is an industry leader in self-polishing copolymer antifouling. Its first was Takata LLL, followed some six years later by a second generation—Seaflex, Seamate HB33, and Seamate HB66.

Seaflex offers the flexibility of being applied in one coat over any previous traditional long-life or selfpolishing antifouling, giving 24 months of protection. Seaflex contains a Jotun-developed copolymer as binder. When drydocking time is limited, it offers an economical alternative. Seamate HB (high build) is based on a specially formulated organotin copolymer as binder, which dissolves slowly in seawater so that fresh antifouling is continuously exposed. It can be applied as one coat up to a dry film thickness of 150 microns. Seamate is available in two qualities, HB33 and HB66; the former polishes at a slower rate than HB66. Greater economy is achieved through the high-build nature of these coatings, as greater film thicknesses can be obtained with lower costs.

Jotun recently announced that due to a breakthrough in copolymer technology, it has developed a new self-polishing paint to replace the older, long-life antifoulings, at no extra investment. Called Seaconomy, it is based on pioneering copolymer technology, protected by worldwide technology.

To date, self-polishing action would only be achieved if the content of the tributyltin (meth)acrylate monomer in the organotine copolymer was more than 50 percent by weight. Jotun's new and original approach breaks that barrier, offering the capability to use organotin copolymers with a lower content of tributyltin (meth)acrylate.

Seaconomy is said to offer just as good antifouling protection as the best long-life coatings, but it is more predictable and of longer duration due to the linear biocide release rate.

The copolymer technology breakthrough provided Jotun with a raw material cost structure similar to that of long-life antifoulings. Therefore, no extra investment is necessary, while having extra advantages with respect to the older, long-life antifoulings.

These Seaconomy advantages include: no sealer coat, no "sandwich coatings", lifetime proportional to the dry film thickness (DFT), and minimized cracking risks. Due to its high solids content (50 percent by volume) and minimum surface preparation required, Seaconomy offers lower application costs and lower drydocking charges.

Seaconomy can be applied in DFTs ranging from 75 to 150 microns per coat. A single coat of 150 microns DFT provides antifouling protection for 24 months.

KAISER CHEMICALS Kaiser Aluminum & Chemical Corporation of Oakland, Calif., is now manufacturing and marketing, in Asia and Oceania, aluminum anodes for cathotic protection in marine environments. The anodes are being produced in Taiwan by the Metal Products Division of Kaiser Chemicals, a division of Kaiser Aluminum. Kaiser Chemicals has been a major supplier of sacrificial anodes for the protection of steel in corrosive environments for 30 years.

Primary product for marine applications is KA95, a highly efficient, mercury-type aluminum alloy anode, with maximum current output. The company's Far East converter, Formosa Shinn Yaun at Kaoshiung, Taiwan, will produce flush-mount hull anodes, ballast tank anodes, platform, and multipurpose anodes. Kaiser Chemicals maintains the same manufacturing techniques and stringent qualitycontrol measures at its new facility as it established at its modern, 12- miilion-pound-capacity manufacturing facility in Tulsa, Okla.

Since its start-up in the fall of 1983, the new Taiwan operation has already received large orders from Daewoo Shipbuilding in Korea and Nippon Steel in Japan.

MAGNUS MARITEC Magnus Maritec International Inc. of Palisades Park, N.J., manufactures Magnakote®, a rust-retarding compound for ballast tank protection, intended to economically and effectively control corrosion. It can be described as an inorganicorganic complex that has a platelet, crystalline structure similar to fish scale. These platelets, being polar in nature, function by being attracted to the metal to form a thin but dense, tight coating that provides an effective barrier to corrosion by allowing an extremely low rate of vapor transmission.

The active corrosion-preventive materials in Magnakote are carried in a matrix that includes a "gelling" oil, making the final coating even more effective. Because there are no solvents to evaporate, the coating is 100-percent active. It is thermally stable, has no offensive odors, is non-toxic in use, and has a high flash point for safety in application. It is not required that Magnakote be completely removed to make mechanical repairs; only the area where the work is to be done will require local cleaning.

Magnus also markets Protecsol- 100, a liquid blend of organic and inorganic corrosion inhibitors specifically developed for the protection of ballast tanks filled during lay-up with seawater. It forms an inherent passivating film on ballast tank surfaces that protects the steel from corrosion. This film remains present even when the ballast is discharged. The rust-retarding qualities of Protecsol-100 were found to be outstanding when tested by a leading independent laboratory specializing in marine corrosion studies. Exposure of steel to a Protecsol-100 solution provides protection that remains even after the inhibited solution is replaced by uninhibited water. The solution contains no chromates, nitrites, nor organo-nitrogen compounds that could be harmful to the environment. It is safe and easy to use, as it has no fire nor flash point.

MARK TOOL For more than 20 years, Lafayette, La.-based Mark Tool Company's Splashtron has protected metal surfaces offshore from corrosion in an area where cathodic protection does not function and conventional paints and coatings will not last—the "splash zone." This is an area immediately above and below the mean water level.

The splash zone is difficult to protect because it is constantly attacked by salt- and sand-laden waves, has a high concentration of oxygen near the surface, and is exposed to physical damage from boats and floating debris.

Splashtron is applied to platform structural members (legs and braces), pipeline risers of all types, and as a permanent liner for riser clamps. The largest member coated to date was a 96-inch OD caisson for the mud slide area in the Gulf of Mexico.

The tough yellow elastomer is bonded tenaciously to the metal surface. Risers can be "cold bent" after the material is applied—testimony to its elasticity and strong bond.

A popular application for Splashtron in recent years has been coating the pipelines to be pulled through the J-tubes (pull tubes) on platforms in relatively deep waters.

Mark Tool coated some 50 "pulls" for the Gulf alone in 1984, and is acknowledged to be the industry leader for that application.

Most recent use of Splashtron to solve severe offshore problems is in combination with copper-nickel cladding to prevent both marine biofouling and corrosion for the life of offshore facilities. This new protective sheathing is called Bio- Shield, and is of special interest in areas where marine growth is excessive. MUHLHAN The Muhlhan Group of companies in Hamburg, West Germany, a worldwide corrosion-protection organization for shipping and industry, is represented in the U.S. by Field, Wigham & Company of Great Neck, N.Y.

Muhlhan specializes in steel and concrete protection work, such as high-performance tank, hull, and repair coating at shipyards, and shoreside coating work for oil refineries, conventional and nuclear power stations, and chemical plants. The company also provides under way coating work, as well as the application of highly sophisticated coating materials. The Group is presently active in 22 countries throughout the world.

Apart from the flexibility and mobility of its work force, Muhlhan operates the shot-blasting vessel Strahl-O-Matic, which is capable of performing work directly alongside a vessel at any location. Muhlhan is presently recycling abrasive material in compliance with the new and stringent environmental protection regulations being enacted throughout the world. All work accomplished by the company is fully guaranteed, and can be insured by international underwriters on a long-term basis.

In addition to recent projects in the Middle East and Latin America, Muhlhan is able to execute international work through its subsidiaries in countries in which orders are received regularly by its long-term cooperation with shipyards and industry. PACIFIC MARINE SERVICES Pacific Marine Services (PMS) of Long Beach, Calif., is an underwater service company offering innovative cost-reduction technology and commercial diving services in West Coast harbors.

PMS recently completed a series of underwater propeller polishings that have significantly improved propeller surfaces. The result has been sharply increased propeller efficiency, leading to substantially reduced bunker costs. This underwater polishing is performed by PMS diver technicians using hydraulic polishers. Special marine disks remove fouling and polish the propeller surfaces to a satin-smooth finish. A detailed report, complete with before- and-after color photographs, is provided with each job.

Propeller efficiency is receiving increased attention by cost-conscious shipowners and marine researchers. Analytical studies by the British Ship Research Association have shown that power penalties ranging from three to six percent can be expected from propellers having Rubert Roughness Grades from D to F. BSRA concludes that because of the small surface areas involved, the return on capital invested in regular propeller maintenance is of a magnitude several times greater than the costs involved. Recent propeller polishing tests by tankers in actual sea trials have repeatedly increased operating efficiency and allowed horse-power reductions of more than 10 percent— far exceeding the analytical studies. Significant fuel consumption reductions have been documented as well.

Under carefully controlled testing, a ULCC showed real fuel consumption decreases of more than 10 percent due to propeller polishing.

PMS also offers pre-drydock hull scrubbing—underwater cleaning for hulls that reduces sand sweeping and water blasting at periodic drydockings. For vessels with conventional coatings, the pre-drydock scrubbing results in a smooth hull surface, clean of all fouling and loose debris, that is ready for coating with antifouling layers.

A full range of 24-hour professional diving services are provided by PMS, including underwater inspection, photo-video surveys, emergency damage reports, and underwater repairs and maintenance.

PALMER INTERNATIONAL Palmer International of Worcester, Pa., long known for its epoxy products, has developed a new polyurethane deck coating and leveling system. Designated Polydeck, this four-component system was developed specifically to meet the demanding needs of the marine and offshore industries. Approved by the U.S. Navy, the system is resistant to oil, water, and fuel, and has high resistance to wear, abrasion, and impact.

The components of the system are primer, underlayment, non-skid, and top coat. The PM-249 primer is a corrosion-resistant coating that creates an excellent adhesive bond between the deck and the PM-249 underlayment. PM-249 is an ambient- curing, self-leveling polyurethane that produces a continuous elastomeric polymer. It is applied at a minimum of 70 mils. (PM-2490 is specifically formulated for cambered decks or other sloping areas.) After proper curing of the PM- 249, PM-1665 polyurethane nonskid is applied. This is a high-performance coating that was developed for use in areas where flexibility and toughness are required. The non-skid is available in roll or spray versions.

PM-1315U is a two-part polyurethant sealer and dress coat designed for use with the PM-1665 non-skid. The dress coat can also be used to apply lines or other markings on the deck.

Palmer International also manufactures Chocktite Green, a pourable chocking compound that is approved by the American Bureau of Shipping, Lloyd's Register of Shipping, Nippon Kaiji Kyokai, and Det norske Veritas.

PETROCHEMICAL Petrochemical Services, Inc. of New Orleans specializes in marine and industrial cleaning. The company is a distributor of two semi-automatic cleaning systems that have the capability to remove rust, scale, algae, and paint (if desired) to a Swedish Standard 3 cleanliness solely with the use of high-pressure water.

The Hammelmann Aquablast surface cleaning machine offers the following capabilities when cleaning ship hulls: high capacity, low weight, optimum cleaning efficiency, minimum water consumption, and easy fitting to available dock equipment. No additional drive power is required.

The second system is the Hammelmann Dockknight, a self-contained, hydraulically driven unit mounted on the dock wall. Its variable travel gear and luffing and slewing arms, with a total extension of about 130 feet, are capable of reaching almost any part of a ship's hull.

Applications for the Dockknight system include: pressure water washing, high-pressure cleaning, derusting and descaling, shot blasting, paint spraying; cutting, welding, or burning; repairs and inspections of all kinds; and ship aligning during docking and undocking.

PHILADELPHIA RESINS Philadelphia Resins Corporation of Montgomeryville, Pa., manufactures the Phillyclad® 1000 Series, a two-component, catalyzed epoxy protective coating designed for demanding marine and industrial requirements. It can be used on interior and exterior surfaces of steel, concrete, masonry, wood, etc., where there is a need for resistance to chemicals, moisture, abrasion, and impact.

Phillyclad 1000 Series offers longterm durability in the painting and protection of steel, concrete, and wood decks; steel fuel storage tanks, pipelines, and other steel structures. It is non-toxic when cured (3-4 days at 72 F) and meets USDA standards for maintenance protective coatings not in direct contact with food, etc. The 1000 Series is also available as an anti-slip deck coating where safety and durability are prime requirements. When coating steel, blast cleaning to near white metal is recommended. If that is not possible, water blast or mechanical preparation is an alternative if done carefully. Prime coats are recommended to seal porous surfaces such as concrete and wood. When a prime coat is required, the first coat of the 1000 Series is reduced 30 percent with PRT-59 solvent; this improves firstcoat penetration resulting in excellent adhesion.

Phillyclad 1000 Series epoxy coating without aggregate is easily sprayed, rolled, or brushed. For the final coat with anti-slip aggregate in the coating, a low-pile, mohair type roller is recommended.

PHOSMARINE Phosmarine Equipment S.A. of Marseille, France, provides the BRUSH-KART® underwater hull cleaning service. Diver-driven for greater efficiency and flexibility, the unit removes marine growth that eats up expensive fuel oil. It can do it in a matter of hours instead of days, while the ship is loading, unloading, or at anchor, causing no delays in ship scheduling. With regular hull cleanings that can be performed between drydock cycles, BRUSH-KART more than pays for itself with impressive savings in fuel operating costs.

Because it is hydraulically operated, the device is said to be safer, faster, and more efficient than any other hull cleaning units available. As it travels underwater along the hull of a ship, it cleans with a thoroughness not attainable with handheld brushes and scrubbers. It can also operate under sea conditions that are normally impossible for other methods.

BRUSH-KART's hydraulic power is supplied to the three brushing units by a single, 328-foot-long, coaxial floating hose. Power source is a 52-bhp diesel engine. The unit is fitted with safety gear that not only meets government and Lloyd's of London requirements, but also allows the unit to be used in the vicinity of unloading tankers.

When in use, the BRUSH-KART is positively buoyant in the water. It clings to the hull surface with a clamping force of 1,390 pounds of suction. This holds the brushes tightly to the hull and provides grip for the driving wheels.

PRC More than one million square feet of Products Research & Chemical Corporation's Proreco® deck coating systems have been applied to exterior decks of small boats, large commercial ships, towboats, offshore rigs, and military vessels. These interior and exterior coating systems are fire-retardant, and resistant to acids, caustic chemicals, and petroleum products.

Proreco III exterior coating systems are used to virtually eliminate costly maintenance and downtime for working ships. These systems are specified by many naval architects, and specified by the military due to their known track record for corrosion control, dependability, and long wear.

Proreco III coatings have an inherent flexibility to withstand normal stress caused by deck movement. These fire-retardant systems provide the ultimate in corrosion control, and are resistant to the heaviest abrasion and impact. Their advantages over rigid coatings is the Proreco elastomeric base, which is not brittle and not subject to cracking, chipping, nor spralling.

The Proreco I coating system is specified for habitability areas such as heads, galleys, and mess decks; it has proven itself as a low-cost, minimal- maintenance system for living spaces. The polyurethane coating provides an attractive high-gloss appearance coupled with the longwearing capability and flexibility to withstand structural movement, impact, and abrasion, with extended corrosion control.

Products Research & Chemical, headquartered in Glendale, Calif., developed the first one-part polysulfide marine caulk many years ago. Through high-technology research and development facilities, PRC continues to develop superior coatings and sealants to meet most high-performance requirements for such products above and below the waterline.

SEAGUARD Seaguard Corporation of Portsmouth, Va., continues to manufacture a complete line of high-quality, high-performance marine paints for both commercial and government applications.

Some of Seaguard's more recent products include the following: Balcoat 2000 is an all-purpose, single-component, rust-inhibitive compound that can be applied to marginally prepared surfaces. Intended for use in dry voids and ballast tanks, it should not be used in tanks containing petroleum products. No Rust 1000 HS is a high-solids, single-component, rust-inhibitive compound formulated to dry hard. It is said to be excellent for exterior/ interior application over marginally prepared surfaces for extended protection. Fire-retardant latex is a non-emissive, fire-retardant, general purpose paint that is both protective and decorative. It is intended for application as a fire-protective coating for steel, aluminum, and nonmetallic substrates. Wherever possible, this coating should be applied over a surface that has been degreased, and primed to promote adhesion. Silcoguard 600 Series is a highperformance, silicone alkyd gloss enamel that gives excellent weather resistance, gloss and color retention over long periods, and easily cleaned surfaces.

Seaguard also carries Seawash®, a water-based, biodegradable, nonflammable non-toxic cleaner for petroleum- based products. It takes on the toughest marine cleaning jobs, and is available in 55-gallon drums and a handy 5-gallon pail.

FOR MORE INFORMATION If you wish to receive additional information on any of the products and services described in this article, circle the appropriate reader service number(s) on one of the postage- paid cards near the back of this issue.

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