DIESEL POWER REVIEW
One of the more difficult tasks facing both marine engineers and vessel owners contemplating new construction or the reengining of an existing vessel is keeping up with the latest developments in diesel engines for both main propulsion and auxiliary power. Manufacturers of marine diesel engines offer a multitude of selections and options to owners of vessels of all sizes, from small workboats to the largest oceangoing ships—low-speed, medium- speed and high-speed units; two-stroke and four-stroke cycle designs; cross-head- and trunk-piston types; loop-scavenged and uniflowscavenged styles; and conventionaland opposed-piston machines. Application, engine availability range, fuel economy, fuel compatibility, maintenance and flexibility are just some of the criteria for an engine's selection.
In an effort to sort out some of the newest choices being offered by diesel engine manufacturers to the marine industry, MR/EN asked major diesel engine manufacturers to provide information on their latest developments and advancements. The following review is based upon the replies received as of press time. Free product literature, brochures and technical reports are available from the manufacturers included in this review. Just circle number(s) on the postpaid card in the back of this issue.
ALCO Alco Power Inc., a subsidiary of Bombardier Inc. of Montreal, Canada, has opened a new service, training and distribution center.
Strategically located on the U.S. East Coast in Norfolk, Va., this new facility is staffed with trained technicians dedicated to providing complete support for all Alco customers with emphasis on the popular Alco 251 model series. The 251 is offered in six-, eight-, 12-, 16- and 18-cylinder configurations and its power range is from 700 to over 4,000 hp. These marine diesel engines comply with major classification society regulations and the rigid specifications of the U.S. military.
The Norfolk operation is headquarters for Alco's U.S. sales and marketing team. A training department provides "hands-on" instruction in the operation and maintenance of the Alco 251 diesel engine utilizing an actual 12-cylinder engine. Additionally, the after sales service department and the renewal parts order processing operations will be conducted from this center. The Norfolk office is also designed to complement and support Alco's sales office in Houston, Texas, as well as Alco's manufacturing facilities located in Auburn, N.Y., and Montreal, Canada.
After a series of improvements to its pistons, cylinder heads and camshafts, the Alco 251 engine now offers reduced fuel consumption, lower maintenance costs and enhanced engine/component reliability.
ALSTHOM The French diesel engine manufacturer S.E.M.T. Pielstick, a wholly owned Alsthom Group subsidiary which incorporated all assets and activities of Alsthom's Diesel Group in 1987, offers high- and mediumspeed diesel engines within the power range of 1,000 to 30,000 bhp for commercial and naval ship propulsion, locomotives and stationary power plants.
Only one year after being introduced in the marine market, S.E.M.T. Pielstick's PC40 type medium- speed diesel engines were sold in six-, seven-, eight-, and ninecylinder versions.
This successful introduction of S.E.M.T. Pielstick's biggest engine type started in Japan in 1986. Four 9PC40s with Recovery Power Turbine for two vehicle/passenger ferries of Shinnihonkai Ferry Co. Ltd., were ordered at IHI, one of S.E.M.T.'s Japanese licensees. Each of the 1,7261-grt ferries will be powered by a twin engine arrangement of 2 x 9PC40.
According to the company, the M/V New Hamansu and the New Shiirayuri now have the most economical medium-speed diesel engine installations. Both 9PC40s on the new Japanese interisland ferry New Hamanasu develop a total power of 21,870 kw (29,700 hp) and the engines set up new standards with a SFC of 164.6 g/kwhr.
The shop-test program finished with a series of tests which were used to plot performance curves. The company reports that during these trials, the recorded SFC plunged below 120 g/hphr for the first time in medium-speed diesel engine history, to 119.7 g/hphr (162.7 g/kwhr).
Already, more than 6,000 hours have been recorded on the working hour meters of the first engines. Overall, 17 PC40 engines are now in service or under construction. The PC40 derivates from the PC4 engine which appeared in 1977 as the first large bore medium-speed engine with high efficiency.
Multipurpose, container, reefer, RO/RO vessels and tankers were fitted with single or twin engine installations. In addition, the PC4 found immediate application in power stations. For example, in Indonesia an installation consisting of 9 x 18PC4 together with PC2-5 engines represents the biggest diesel engine power station in the world (227.4 mw). More than 200 units of S.E.M.T. Pielstick's PC4 family have been built or are on order at present. The oldest PC4 type has completed almost 80,000 operating hours.
The S.E.M.T. Pielstick PC40 engine design offers a concentration of important advantages, such as: extensive service experience accumulated over 10 years, high fuel efficiency, flexibility to almost all requirements or particular applications, simplicity in design, advanced technology, worldwide service points and spare parts availability. ATLANTIC DETROIT DIESEL ALLISON The management of Atlantic Detroit Diesel Allison, Inc., has bought the Detroit Diesel Allison distributorship located in New York and New Jersey from Penske Corporation. The announcement was made recently by Eugene C. Enlow, president of the newly formed Atlantic Detroit Diesel Allison distributorship. The new company will continue operations at four facilities in New Jersey and two locations in New York formerly owned by Penske. Penske Power, Inc., has been the Detroit Diesel Allison distributor for the metro-New York/Northern New Jersey market since 1975. Its engineering, sales and marketing divisions have been active in high-performance marine propulsion systems for pleasure and commercial craft, power generating systems for both prime and standby applications (most recently eight 1,400 kwunits for Shearson-American Express World Financial center) and highly sophisticated onboard computerized monitoring systems for various diesel applications.
Penske's parts and service division introduced two-hour response time, "around the clock," to the City of New York and is currently under contract with many large metropolitan area fleet customers.
BERGEN DIESEL One of the latest designs from Bergen Diesel of Norway, the Type BR, is a four-stroke, turbocharged and intercooled engine with a bore of 320 mm and stroke of 360 mm. It is available in an in-line configuration with six, eight, or nine cylinders, with maximum continuous ratings of 425-500 bhp per cylinder at engine speeds of 720/750 rpm.
Type BRM for main propulsion has engine ratings of 3,000-4,500 bhp at 750 rpm. Ratings of the Type BRG for power generation range from 2,015 to 3,020 kw at 720 rpm/ 60 Hz, and 2,100-3,150 kw at 750 rpm/50 Hz. Backed by more than 20 years of experience with heavy fuel operation, Bergen's BR series is an engine design that aims at very high reliability and long intervals between overhauls, even when running on the poorest qualities of heavy fuel. Excellent access is provided for all maintenance work, and special tools such as hydraulic tightening jacks for the important bolt connections further ease and reduce maintenance time.
The cylinder block is a one-piece design with underslung crankshaft, a very rigid structure in nodular cast iron. Cylinder liners are centrifugally cast, with bore cooling only for the upper part where needed. The cylinder head is a bore-cooled design with thick bottom for good control of mechanical and thermal loads. The fully forged crankshaft with continuous grain flow has a large diameter journal and pin for low bearing loads.
Connecting rods are forged in alloy steel and machined all over.
Bearings are steel-backed with lead/ bronze bearing material and soft overlay. Pistons are of two-piece design, with three compression rings and one oil scraper ring, all chromium- plated to insure low wear rates. The fuel injection system of L'Orange make was developed for 1,400 bar injection pressure and has constant pressure unloading for cavitation- free operation at all loads/ speeds.
CATERPILLAR In May, Caterpillar, Inc., Mossville, 111., increased production of its popular 3600 Engine Series and advised its dealers to begin full-scale marketing.
The 3600 Engine Family of fourcycle engines has a bore of 280 mm and a stroke of 300 mm. The 3600 Family, with an engine speed range of 720 to 1,000 rpm, has four members: in-line six- and eight-cylinder versions, a V-12 and a 4,500-kw continuous- rated V-16.
After 10 years of development and over three years and 500,000 operating hours, the 3600 Family is a proven performer. Customers throughout the world are responding favorably.
For example, in the U.S., the M/V Ce'Cile Erikson's 3606 engine has accumulated over 22,000 hours operating between Georgia and the Caribbean islands. Ashland Oil, Cincinnati, Ohio, recently chris- tened the last in a series of three 4,200-hp towboats, the SuperAmerica, all of which are powered by twin 3606s.
In Europe, a Norwegian trawler/ processor has accumulated over 6,000 operating hours on her 3608 engine. In the Netherlands, the M/V Onderneming III is moving cargo on the Rhine River using a 3606 with over 7,000 operating hours. In France, four new trawlers are being outfitted with 3606s.
In Asia, eight 3606s are bound for new tugboats in China.
In addition, the U.S. Navy is using five 3608 generator sets aboard the new AOE-6 resupply ships.
Caterpillar designed the 3600 for efficient heavy fuel operation. Heavy fuel units are operating in the Great Lakes, Canary Islands, Belgium and Brazil. The first oceangoing containership to benefit from Cat 3600 heavy fuel auxiliaries will be repowered this month.
Excellent fuel consumption is achieved by using a high-pressure unit injector combined with efficient turbocharging of the laboratory- developed combustion system.
As a result, Caterpillar will guarantee specific fuel consumption dependent on fuel specifications.
CUMMINS Cummins Engine Company, Inc., Columbus, Ind., which had acquired majority ownership of the Onan Corporation in early 1986, has announced an agreement with Hawker- Siddeley and Onan whereby Cummins will assume responsibility for the Onan L Series diesel engines. Under the agreement, which covers only the L Series diesel engines, the engine will be designated the Cummins A Series.
With the addition of the A Series, Cummins power range will be expanded to 41 horsepower on the low end. This enables Cummins to offer diesel power for a wide variety of applications from 41 to 9,000 hp. The Cummins A Series engine family, which will open up a number of new markets for the company, consists of three, four and six-cylinder naturally aspirated models, as well as a six-cylinder turbocharged model. These engines, which are smaller than the Cummins B Series, offer a wide power range of 41 to 120 hp at 3,600 rpm (compared to the B Series automotive rating of 105 to 186 hp at 2,800 rpm). The A is designed as an in-line, four-stroke, water-cooled engine and employs an indirect injection system. It can be used in generator set, marine auxiliary propulsion and small industrial equipment applications.
DETROIT DIESEL Since 1938, the name Detroit Diesel on a marine diesel engine has represented reliable, durable performance. Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) offers diesel engines ranging from 5 to 2,200 horsepower. Detroit Diesel Corporation introduced its new 6V-53TI diesel engine rated at 400 bhp during the 1988 Miami International Boat Show. This engine has many of the same premium features that are found in larger Detroit Diesel engines such as replaceable cylinder liners, cast iron crosshead pistons, four-valve heads and unit fuel injectors.
The 6V-53TI offers customers fuel economy, performance and reliability. Because of advanced component technology, the new 6V-53TI provides 25 percent increase in power levels. Approximately 1-1/4 horsepower per cubic inch displacement means the 6V-53TI produces more speed with less engine weight and better power-to-weight ratio.
The 6V-53TI is a compact power package that features a totally watercooled turbocharger and exhaust system providing a cooler environment below deck and more room where the engine has to work.
Available this fall, the new Detroit Diesel 16V-149TI engine is rated at 2,200 horsepower. The engine is a result of extensive development programs which have resulted in features such as totally watercooled turbochargers, risers and exhaust manifolds. Turbo-matching to the engine provides improved performance, clean exhaust and fuel economy improvements.
The 2,200 hp 16V-149TI was derived from a patrol application developed and placed in service two years ago. DDC anticipates the same excellent durability and relaibility for this new engine.
DEUTZ-MWM The Marine Division of Stuttgartbased engine builder J. Wizemann GmbH & Co. has joined forces with Motoren-Werke Mannheim AG for cooperation in the passenger boat propulsion engine sector.
According to the management of the two companies, under the agreement Wizemann intends to match, at its marine center at Hochberg, Germany, Deutz MWM basic engines to the particular requirements of passenger vessel application. All worldwide sales regarding these engines will be undertaken by Deutz MWM sales organization.
Under the program, Wizemann will adapt the engines' cooling, exhaust and fuel supply systems, the electronics, auxiliary drives and mounting.
The partnership is based on Deutz MWM's solid basic engines backed by an efficient worldwide sales and service organization and Wizemann's extensive experience in matching an engine to the special requirements of passenger boat application. The first marine engine the two companies introduced under their new cooperation is the WD 234 V12TI rated at 810 kw (1,100 hp). Preproduction units are due to be available in November 1988. The beginning of regular production is scheduled for January 1989. The two companies expect to sell 200 units by 1990.
Besides the WD 234, Deutz MWM offers the medium-sized 604B diesel engine series, specially designed for fast ships and passenger vessels. The series covers a power range of 1,000, 1,500 and 2,000 Kw (1,400, 2,000 and 2,700 hp). At present, Wizemann is preparing another propulsion engine for passenger boat application. This is a six-cylinder, turbocharged, charge air-cooled in-line engine of the Deutz MWM 226B Series which includes two- , three- , four- and sixcylinder models. A prototype is due to be tested early in 1989, while the beginning of regular production is scheduled for mid-1989.
ELECTRO-MOTIVE The latest diesel engine design from the Electro-Motive Division (EMD) of General Motors is the 710G Series, offering increased reliability, better fuel economy, and the potential for significantly higher horsepower in the future. The new design is an evolutionary development of EMD's turbocharged, uniflow-scavenged, two-stroke cycle engines.
The simplicity of design, maintainability, and high reliability of those engines have been retained in the new design.
The 16-cylinder 710G is rated 3,600 bhp at 900 rpm for marine applications. It has a bore of 9.06 inches, stroke of 11 inches, and displacement of 710 cubic inches per cylinder.
The design of the 710G is a logical outgrowth of EMD's current production series, the 645F engines.
The most recent version of that series, the 645FB, is the result of a succession of incremental improvements. From 1980 to 1983, for example, the fuel efficiency of the 645F was increased by six percent and the compression ratio was raised from 14.5:1 to 16:1.
The 710G can also be viewed as a new dimension in engine design in terms of its potential for future development. Greater displacement and an advanced-design turbocharger give the 710G the capacity for significant increases in horsepower. Thus, the 710G combines innovation with the proven technology of its predecessor, but its potential makes it more than just this year's model.
The 710G is EMD's most fuelefficient engine to date; full-load consumption has been improved by nine percent over the 1980 645F3 engine.
The longer stroke and added displacement of the 710G led to structural improvements in the engine, including: new Model G crankcase; larger-diameter plunger injectors; larger-diameter crankshaft; longer cylinder liner; and longer piston and rod assembly. Overall dimensions also increased; the 710G is 4% inches longer and 1% inches higher. The added engine length is the result of a larger, extremely efficient turbocharger. Entry to the turbine was streamlined to improve gas flow, and an improved exhaust diffuser also reduces flow restriction. The turbocharger is deeper to accommodate a larger annulus for a smoother and less restrictive discharge of exhaust gases. Overall, the turbocharger is said to be the most efficient ever produced by EMD. The state-of-the-art G turbocharger provides a 15-percent increase in air flow for reduced thermal loading of critical engine components. This higher air flow, combined with an increased injection rate from the new 0.56-inch plunger injector, accounts for the increase in fuel economy at rated output, with no increase in engine thermal loading. A key concern in the development of a large-displacement diesel is reliability. Throughout the development of the 710G, EMD used advanced laboratory techniques to analyze stress and predict performance. Finite element analysis and comprehensive strain-gauge testing were used extensively to take full advantage of EMD's broad experience with the 645 engines. Total development cost of the 710G was $60 million, and the tooling cost alone was $78 million.
GRANDI MOTORI "GMT" is the trademark that distinguishes the large and mediumsized diesel engines designed in Italy by the Grandi Motori Division of Fincantieri-Cantieri Navali Italiani SpA, with the continuing experience and technology accumulated since the beginning of the century.
The engines designed and built by GMT are characterized by their reliability, ease of operation and maintenance and low-operating cost.
The GMT production range including high-speed engines (with 210 and 230-mm bores) and medium-speed engines (with 420 and 550-mm bores) has recently been expanded with the newly designed A320 Series (320-mm bore by 360-mm stroke) developing 500 hp/ cylinder at 750 rpm.
The prototype has been tested at the brake for more than 2,000 hours and is still undergoing running tests for various different applications under extreme conditions.
Seven engines of this family, which will be fitted in generating sets for marine application, are already under production, while four others will be employed for both propulsion and stationary applications. GMT production is characterized by its competitiveness in applications for the navy, marine industry, railways, gas and bio-gas plants, urban co-generation plants, etc.
ISOTTA FRASCHINI Isotta Fraschini SpA of Italy designs and manufactures a broad range of diesel engines for various applications. The ID 32 Series for marine propulsion offers a power range from 180 to 400 bhp at 2,700 to 3,000 rpm.
The ID 38 Series is rated from 180 to 400 bhp at 2,700-2,900 rpm for workboat propulsion, and 500 bhp at 3,000 rpm in military applications. The ID 36 Series has a power range of from 300 to 1,320 bhp at 1,650-1,800 rpm for workboats, and up to 1,600 bhp at 1,900 rpm for military vessels.
The ID 36 engines are available in V configuration with 6, 8,12, and 16 cylinders; a 10-cylinder version is under development. All production engines in this series are available in amagnetic versions.
Isotta also manufactures, under license, the Paxman Diesel model PV2000 engine, which has a power range from 1,000 to 4,500 bhp at 1,600 rpm.
KRUPP MAK A medium-speed diesel engine designed for heavy fuel operation and low fuel consumption is an ideal basis for engines with the load profile for naval operations.
Diesel engine manufacturer Krupp MaK, which has more than 100 years' experience in naval equipment, offers a number of medium- speed, four-stroke heavy fuel engines in the output range from 740 to 9,900 kw (1,000-13,500 hp). For example, Krupp MaK offers the heavy-fuel engines M453C and M332, both of which boost low fuel consumption. The company reports that both engines feature an excellent ratio of maximum to mean piston pressure, but a moderate, and therefore operational safe, values. Additionally, the moderate engine load permits a very favorable compression. The engines run very clean at low loads, partially as the result of high injection energy.
Both engines feature clean and simple construction. Through fine tuning and the use of high-grade spheroidal graphite iron casting, both engines feature excellent rigidity and thus low vibration.
The relatively long piston strokes of the MaK engines permit quiet running with high mechanical efficiency. The cylinder air exchange is more effective as with a short stroke engine. The engines are built for a low thermal load, in order to be suitable for heavy fuel oil operation.
This provides the highest operational safety at frequently changing loads, which are usual in naval operation. A bonus feature of the MaK engines' designs is an extremely clean exhaust. The marriage of nitrided cylinder liners and the all- around chromium plating of the piston rings and associated ring grooves results in extremely low wear, and consequently, excellent lube oil consumption.
Since the engines are designed for rough operation, an unusually long overall service life is expected for naval operation. Piston rings should be changed after 20,000 hours, valves overhauled at 10,000 hours and pistons and cylinder liners should have a service life approximately equal to the life cycle of the engine itself.
MAN B&W DIESEL Denmark MAN B&W Diesel's two-stroke engine program, the MC engines, is available with eight different cylinder bores, from 26 cm to 90 cm.
Three different stroke to bore ratios are available and the engines cover a nominal unit output range from 1,460 kw at 250 rpm to 47,280 kw at 90 rpm.
With these engines, which were introduced in 1982, being built by licensees throughout the world, MAN B&W holds a major share of the world market for low-speed diesel engine propulsion.
The engines are designed for high efficiency and reliability which is proven by their excellent service record aboard about 800 ships and the fact that virtually no major modifications or design changes have been necessitated over the years, proving the stability in design based on the company's long tradition in low speed uniflow scavenged diesels.
With fuel rates below 160 g/kwh, an engine efficiency of more than 50 percent is obtained, with established working cycle parameters.
Further possibilities to enhance total economy are available in the form of layout flexibility, enabling the supply of tailor-made engines optimized for the ship designer's wishes for specific output/speed combinations.
Other possibilities exist in the use of standardized power take-offs (PTOs) and turbo-compound systems as well as in the establishment of integrated energy systems on board comprising both MAN B&W two-stroke main engines and fourstroke auxiliary engines.
Hence, wide application possibilities can be met with the MC engines and its pertaining pre-designed or tailor-made scope of system engineering. MAN B&W DIESEL Germany Even in the face of the difficult market conditions for marine newbuildings and stationary diesel power stations, medium-speed fourstroke engines built by MAN B&W Diesel have solidified their excellent market position. In the last 24 months, a total of 92 engines, developing over 980,000 hp, have been sold in the engine series 40/45, 40/ 54, 52/55 and 58/64. Two thirds of these engines power ships and one third are intended for diesel power stations. These sales figures were achieved in equal shares by the Augsburg works and the worldwide network of licensees. One noteworthy event was the sale of seven L40/ 54 diesel engines to Meyer Werft shipyard to power a new cruise liner being built for cruise operator Chandris.
Although the demand for large merchant vessels and the market for stationary power supply units both reached their lowest points to date in the last few years, MAN B&W Diesel was able to further increase its market share in the output range between 5,000 and 16,000 hp (3,676 and 11,264 kw), with their economical, technicality advanced and refined four-stroke engines.
In the output range 500-2,000 kw, MAN B&W's Holeby works launched an upgraded version of the tried and tested "23 and 28" engine series. MAN B&W was able to secure a worldwide market share of 18 percent for marine auxiliary gensets in this output range. Its market success was mainly the result of design improvements achieved by the engineering department at Augsburg working in close cooperation with MAN B&W's licensees.
The new generation engines involved the further enhancement of the proven features which make these gensets ideal for burning heavy fuel up to IF 700 (7,000 sec. Rl), without restrictions as to lowload operation or starting and stopping. In addition, various measures were implemented which open up new operating possibilities and provide for increased reliability. These features include: flexible engine layout; electrical output adjusted to best meet the needs of the operator. Further adjustment is also possible while the ship is in service so as to minimize specific fuel consumption; constant-pressure turbocharging; integrated charge air system—this system, for which a patent is pending, enables the genset to operate continuously at low-load down to idle. Thus generating back-up capacity is readily available at all times; and low space requirement— it was possible to reduce the length and width of the genset by optimizing the attachment of additional equipment.
MTU MTU of North America, Inc., the North American marketing, sales and service subsidiary of MTU Friedrichshafen, offers a full line of compact, high-speed diesel engines for marine applications ranging from 150 (183 Series) to 10,000 horsepower per engine.
The 396 Series is the most widely used version of MTU diesel engines for passenger boat applications. First developed in 1975 from the predecessor 331 Series engines, the 396 Series family is comprised of four-stroke, 90-degree V-configuration engines with six, eight, 12 and 16 cylinders of 3.96 liters displacement. The engines also feature direct fuel injection, liquid cooling (including a three-walled exhaust manifold), exhaust gas turbocharging and charge air cooling.
In the marine version, the 16V 396 TB94 produces 2,900 hp at 1,975 rpm (continuous power) and 3,480 hp at 2,100 rpm (maximum power). A power density of 215 hp/ cylinder was achieved by raising the mean effective pressure from 17.3 to 23 bar. The unit's weight-to-power ratio is approximately 3.2 pounds/ hp.
A digital electronic governor makes it possible to safely exploit the engine's power reserves and simplifies interfacing with the electronic propulsion plant monitoring and control system (MTU-developed MCS-4, one of the marine industry's most advanced systems). In conjunction with electronic engine monitoring, the governor controls additional functions including sequential turbocharging, cylinder cut-out and charge transfer, and very-high-pressure fuel injection, each working together to provide maximum power, fuel and operating efficiency.
PERKINS Perkins North America, Lawrenceville, Ga., a subsidiary of the Perkins Engines Group, Petersborough, England. Over the years it has become a leading supplier of diesel engines in North America, obtaining a major share of four market segments— welding, non-captive agricultural, material handling and marine— in the 50 to 350 horsepower range. In 1984, it expanded into the heavy-duty diesel market by acquiring Rolls-Royce diesels, and later, in a joint venture with ISM of Japan, introduced a small compact engine line known as the 100 Series. Perkins now offers a range from 10 to 1,200 hp.
Recently, Perkins launched a new line of light commercial marine diesel engines. The engines, comprising 16 different units, are being marketed as Power Prestige.
They include Perkins' newest Prima and Perama small diesels, the well-established four- and six-cylinder medium-sized Range 4 engines and the V8 and V12 units built at Perkins' Shrewsbury, U.K., factory. Perkins recently added the M275Ti engine to its Range 4 Series. The turbocharged and chargecooled six-cylinder engine has a power output of up to 187 kw (250 bhp) at 2,800 rpm.
In addition, Perkins launched the Perama and Prima compact, lightweight marine diesel engines.
The Perama engines include the M30 and M25, three-cylinder diesels offering 21.6 kw (29 bhp) and 18.6 kw (25 bhp) at 3,600 rpm. The new Prima line consists of three models—the turbocharged Prima M80T offering 78 bhp at 4,500 rpm, followed by the naturally aspirated Prima M60 and M50 developing 59 bhp at 4,000 rpm and 50 bhp at 4,000 rpm.
SCANIA The Scania Division, Industrial & Marine Engines, of Saab-Scania, offers a number of diesel engines for both main shipboard propulsion and auxiliary power.
For onboard propulsion applications, Scania offers heat exchanger or keel-cooled engines for continuous uninterrupted service (ranging from 152 hp at 2,200 rpm to 379 hp at 1,800 rpm), medium-duty commercial service (296 hp at 1,800 rpm to 421 hp at 1,800 rpm) and lightduty commercial service (171 hp at 2,200 rpm to 450 hp at 2,100 rpm). For auxiliary power applications, the firm offers engines for 50 Hz applications (ranging from 89 kw to 263 kw) and 60 Hz (101 kw to 296 kw).
In-line six-cylinder engines offered by Scania include the models DN 11, DS 11 and DSI 11 in keelcooled and heat exchanger versions, as well as the models DN 9 and DS 9 in keel-cooled versions only.
Scania offers the V-8 DS 14 (turbocharged) in heat exchanger and keel-cooled versions and the V-8 DSI 14 (turbocharged and intercooled) in heat exchanger version only.
Built for economical operation and long service life, Scania engines incorporate Keystone-type piston rings which ensure good lube oil economy and an excellent seal between the piston and the cylinder wall, at the same time as they eliminate coking in ring grooves.
Another advantage of Keystone rings is that, in conjunction with other design features of Scania engines, they enable full load to be assumed instantly on starting without jeopardizing engine life.
SULZER The reknowned RTA low-speed diesel engine program of Sulzer Brothers Limited of Switzerland was expanded last year with the introduction of the RTA72 (720-mm bore). With four to eight cylinders, the RTA72 engines cover a power range from 7,680 to 28,000 bhp at speeds of 66 to 91 rpm.
Two 111,000-dwt crude oil tankers recently ordered in Yugoslavia by the Teekay Shipping group of the U.S. include the first contracts for Sulzer RTA72 low-speed diesel engines.
Ordered from the 3. Maj Shipbuilding Industry in Rijeka, Yugoslavia, the vessels will each be powered by a five-cylinder Sulzer RTA72 engine built under license by 3. Maj. Each have a maximum continuous output of 14,340 bhp (10,550 kw) at 78 revolutions per minute. Measuring about 810 feet long, the ships will have a service speed of 12 knots, and are due for delivery in 1988 and 1989.
The RTA72 is available in models with four to eight cylinders providing a power range of 7,680-28,000 bhp (5,640-20,560 kw) at speeds from 66 to 91 revolutions per minute. The 720 mm cylinder bore follows the RTA52, RTA62 and RTA84M designs providing comparatively lower rotational speeds than earlier RTA designs.
The RTA series is said to present one of the most cost-effective solutions for ship propulsion. Its overall economy combines the benefits of low-fuel consumption, low engine speeds, good waste heat recovery, high reliability, long times between overhauls, capability to burn lowquality residual fuels, and low maintenance costs, all supported by Sulzer's worldwide service network.
The integral power takeoff of RTA engines provides for both main engine-driven generators and efficiency booster exhaust power turbines. with PTO and waste heat recovery, RTA engines are reported to be ideal as integrated energy plants meeting all of the ship's requirements for propulsion, electrical power, and heating services in one simple prime mover.
Sulzer has also introduced a longer- stroke version of its 400-mmbore, medium-speed four-stroke engine. The ZA40S is a long-stroke version of the proven ZA40 engine. By increasing the stroke from 480 mm to 560 mm, a significant improvement in fuel economy was achieved (4 grams per bhp-hour), while increasing the maximum continuous rating from 870 to 900 bhp per cylinder and lowering the engine speed from 580 to 510 rpm.
The longer stroke and resulting lower engine speed of the ZA40S have the advantages of: better combusion as the time available for combustion is increased; better mechanical efficiency due to lower frictional losses in the engine bearings; and improved combustion chamber geometry. All of these features contribute to the improvement in specific fuel consumption without inreasing the maximum firing pressure above 155 bar as in the ZA40.
The ZA40S engine is available as an in-line version with six, eight, or nine cylinders, and in a V configuration with 12, 14, 16, or 18 cylinders, and ranging in output from 5,400 to 16,200 bhp at 510 rpm. At an economy rating of 750 bhp per cylinder at 510 rpm, the V engines achieve a specific fuel consumption of 129 g/ bhp-hr. By using an exhaust gas power turbine as an efficiency booster, the specific fuel rate can be improved by three percent to 125 g/ bhp-hr.
SWDIESEL Based upon decades of experience, Dutch engine manufacturer SWDiesel has developed a large variety of medium-speed engines ranging in power from 400 kw (536 hp) to 13,000 kw (17,433 hp).
The introduction of advanced computer design systems has led to the development of the new "G" version of the company's F240 engine. This new system makes it possible for engine components to be optimally designed and selected to form a tailor-made, client-required application of the diesel engine plant. The optional equipment includes cooling and heating systems for lubrication oil, fuel injection and fuel treatment, as well as safety monitoring and alarm devices.
Through the CAD system, all drawings of engine dimensions, positions of pipe connections, and all necessary diagrams and flow sheets are produced. As a result, the customer is supplied with a complete package of information—tailored and matched to his particular application. The new "G" version of the F240 has an improved fuel injection system resulting in a better fuel economy and reduction of thermal loading, especially for burning heavy fuels. The charge air system has been simplified compared to the former F240. The number of parts of the charge air system is more or less halved, with, consequently, a more accessible and easier design. This improved charge air system can be matched perfectly to the new highly efficient turbochargers and the increased air flow. The advanced injection system results in a faster and better combustion, especially with low grade fuels. Endurance tests have shown that the durability of engine components such as fuel injection nozzles, bearings, piston rings, pistons, etc., have resulted in better lifetimes than can be expected with the previous F240 version. Comprehensive research, sophisticated calculating methods, and the latest tools and equipment have enabled SWDiesel to manufacture a well-balanced and modern diesel engine—powerful, fuel-efficient and highly reliable.
VOLVO PENTA Whether you need power for jobs requiring Heavy Duty (HD), Medium Duty (MD), or Light Duty ratings, Volvo Penta has a full series of engines from which to choose, with the extra equipment and accessories for specialized workboat needs. With propulsion systems performing reliably in over 100 countries worldwide, Volvo Penta has an array of powerful, efficient engines and a network of skilled technicians to serve virtually every commercial need, including multi-engine installatins for large vessels.
Developed from the start as workboat engines, the TAMD121D and TMD121C are the biggest, most powerful diesels in Volvo Penta's program. Both are direct-injected, in-line sixes with turbocharging, and the TAMD121D also features aftercooling for even better output and performance. The TAMD121D produces 367 hp at 1,800 rpm (HD), 388 hp at 1,900 rpm (MD), and 422 hp at 2,000 rpm, while the TMD121C develops 300 hp at 1,800 rpm (HD), 320 hp at 1,800 rmp (MD), and 340 hp at 2,000 rpm (LD), comparatively.
Developed with the help of sophisticated computer technology, the turbocharged and aftercooled TAMD71 and TAMD61 represent the latest developments in the field of diesel technology. The TAMD71 provides 222 hp at 2,000 rpm (HD), 292 hp at 2,500 rpm (MD), and 262 hp at 2,500 rpm (LD), while the TAMD61 produces 187 hp at 2,200 rpm (HD), 228 hp at 2,500 rpm (MD) and 306 hp at 2,800 rpm (LD). New cylinder heads with flame barriers increase gasket life, while new intake and exhaust channel designs give identical swirl characteristics for each cylinder, reducing smoke and increasing fuel efficiency. New gear-driven freshwater circulation pump and a plate-type oil cooler team up to provide more effective cooling. Adjustable rear engine brackets make installation easier and anti-vibration mounts help reduce noise.
The 31 and 41 Series are a new generation of marine diesels for workboats, including three 4-cylinder and two 6-cylinder direct-injected models, available in naturally aspirated (31 Series only), turbocharged, and turbocharged and aftercooled versions. Due to lower heat losses with direct injection, fuel consumption has been slashed by about 15 percent, without losing the exceptionally good acceleration and response.
WARTSILA DIESEL Finnish engine maker Wartsila Diesel has introduced the Wartsila Vasa 46, an innovative mediumspeed, four-stroke heavy fuel engine designed for maximum operational reliability. The most significant design features of the Vasa 46 are the thick-pad technology for reduced bearing loads, the new SwirlEx charging system for high efficiency at all loads and speeds and Twin Injection, the double injection system for a high rate of combustion and low fuel consumption. The antivibration technology of the Vasa 46 includes rigid engine structure, full balancing and resilient mounting. The output range of the engine is 3,600-16,300 kw (4,828-21,858 hp) at a speed range of 450-514 rpm.
The first Vasa 46 installation will be aboard a multipurpose RO/RO vessel being built at the J.J. Sietas Shipyard in Hamburg. The vessel, scheduled for completion in September 1988, will have a six-cylinder Vasa 46 as her main engine.
In another installation, English United Baltic Corporation's new RO/RO vessel under construction at Hyundai Heavy Industries' Ulsan shipyard will be equipped with a "father-and-son" engine arrangement consisting of a six-cylinder and a nine-cylinder Vasa 46 main engine.
Vasa 46 main engines will also be installed on two new passenger/car ferries under construction for Finnish- Swedish Silja Line.
Another recent introduction from Wartsila is the Wartsila Vasa 22/26, a powerful medium-speed auxiliary engine. This engine is well-suited for power production in different types of vessels. Rigid design of the components combined with an optimized combustion process guarantees reliable and economical operation at all loads, even on the lowest grade heavy fuels. The Vasa 22/26 has a cylinder bore of 220 mm and a piston stroke of 260 mm. The output range is 54—3,000 kw at speeds ranging from 720 to 1,100 rpm. The latest achievement in the development of the Wartsila Diesel engine range is the Wartsila Vasa GD, a new gas diesel engine that can operate on a wide variety of fuels, from poor quality heavy fuel to high quality hydrocarbon gases without any engine modification or loss of power. The Vasa GD is a multifuel engine well suited for a number of different installations: offshore power plants, pumping and compressor stations and fuel-off-thewell operation in the oil industry.